Your Ancestors Didn’t Sleep Like You

Author: | Posted in Science, Trivia 839 Comments

Your ancestors didn't sleep like you

Ok, maybe your grandparents probably slept like you. And your great, great-grandparents. But once you go back before the 1800s, sleep starts to look a lot different. Your ancestors slept in a way that modern sleepers would find bizarre – they slept twice. And so can you.

The History

The existence of our sleeping twice per night was first uncovered by Roger Ekirch, professor of History at Virginia Tech.

His research found that we didn’t always sleep in one eight hour chunk. We used to sleep in two shorter periods, over a longer range of night. This range was about 12 hours long, and began with a sleep of three to four hours, wakefulness of two to three hours, then sleep again until morning.

References are scattered throughout literature, court documents, personal papers, and the ephemera of the past. What is surprising is not that people slept in two sessions, but that the concept was so incredibly common. Two-piece sleeping was the standard, accepted way to sleep.

“It’s not just the number of references – it is the way they refer to it, as if it was common knowledge,” Ekirch says.

An English doctor wrote, for example, that the ideal time for study and contemplation was between “first sleep” and “second sleep.” Chaucer tells of a character in the Canterbury Tales that goes to bed following her “firste sleep.” And, explaining the reason why working class conceived more children, a doctor from the 1500s reported that they typically had sex after their first sleep.

Ekirch’s book At Day’s Close: Night in Times Past is replete with such examples.

But just what did people do with these extra twilight hours? Pretty much what you might expect.

Most stayed in their beds and bedrooms, sometimes reading, and often they would use the time to pray. Religious manuals included special prayers to be said in the mid-sleep hours.

Others might smoke, talk with co-sleepers, or have sex. Some were more active and would leave to visit with neighbours.

As we know, this practice eventually died out. Ekirch attributes the change to the advent of street lighting and eventually electric indoor light, as well as the popularity of coffee houses. Author Craig Koslofsky offers a further theory in his book Evening’s Empire. With the rise of more street lighting, night stopped being the domain of criminals and sub-classes and became a time for work or socializing. Two sleeps were eventually considered a wasteful way to spend these hours.

No matter why the change happened, shortly after the turn of the 20th century the concept of two sleeps had vanished from common knowledge.

Until about 1990.

The Science

Two sleeps per night may have been the method of antiquity, but tendencies towards it still linger in modern man. There could be an innate biological preference for two sleeps, given the right circumstances.

In the early ‘90s, psychiatrist Thomas Wehr of National Institutes of Mental Health conducted a study on photoperiodicity (exposure to light), and its effect on sleep patterns.

In his study, fifteen men spent four weeks with their daylight artificially restricted. Rather than staying up and active the usual sixteen hours per day, they would stay up only ten. The other fourteen hours they would be in a closed, dark room, where they would rest or sleep as much as possible. This mimics the days in mid-winter, with short daylight and long nights.

At first, the participants would sleep huge stretches of time, likely making up for sleep debt that’s common among modern people. Once they had caught up on their sleep though, a strange thing started to happen.

They began to have two sleeps.

Over a twelve hour period, the participants would typically sleep for about four or five hours initially, then wake for several hours, then sleep again until morning. They slept not more than eight hours total.

The middle hours of the night, between two sleeps, was characterized by unusual calmness, likened to meditation. This was not the middle-of-the-night toss-and-turn that many of us experienced. The individuals did not stress about falling back asleep, but used the time to relax.

Russell Foster, professor of circadian neuroscience at Oxford, points out that even with standard sleep patterns, this night waking isn’t always cause for concern. “Many people wake up at night and panic,” he says. “I tell them that what they are experiencing is a throwback to the bi-modal sleep pattern.”

Outside of a scientific setting, this kind of sleep pattern is still attainable, but it does require changing our modern, electric lifestyle. Very cool person J. D. Moyer did just that. He and his family intentionally went an entire month with no electric light.

In the winter months, this meant a lot of darkness and a lot of sleep. Moyer writes “…I would go to bed really early, like 8:30, and then get up around 2:30am.  This was alarming at first, but then I remembered that this sleep pattern was quite common in pre-electric light days.  When this happened I would end up reading or writing by candlelight for an hour or two, then going back to bed.”

Moyer didn’t set out to reproduce our ancestors sleep pattern, it just happened as a byproduct of a lot of dark hours.

Should We Revive Two Sleeps?

Although history shows that two sleeping was common, and science indicates that it is (in some conditions) natural, there is no indication that it is better. Two sleeps may leave you feeling more rested, but this could simply be because you are intentionally giving yourself more time to rest, relax, and sleep. Giving the same respect to the single, eight-hour sleep should be just as effective.

Note too that two sleeping needs a lot of darkness – darkness that is only possible naturally during the winter months. The greater levels of daylight during summer and other seasons would make two sleeping difficult, or even impossible.

Perhaps two sleeping is merely a coping mechanism to get through the long, cold, boring nights of the winter. Today, we don’t need to cope. So long as we give our sleep the time and respect it needs, getting the “standard” eight hours of sleep should be fine.

But next time you wake up at 2 AM and can’t sleep, just remember your great, great, great, great, great grandfather. He did the same thing every night.

Update

Well this article proved exceedingly popular! Thank you to everyone who visited, or took the time to leave a comment. I would encourage new visitors to have a read through the comments below for some interesting ideas and perspectives. I learned two things in particular:

1. This is far more common that I thought. A lot of commenters either practice, or used to practice this kind of sleep.

2. Another possible reason for two sleeps is tending the fire during the night. Several clever readers noted that in order to keep a fire running through the night, we would need to get up and tend it.

Commenters also raised questions regarding non-European and non-Western cultures, which we’ll be digging into in future articles. For anyone who wants to learn more about this kind of sleep, I’ve linked below to two books referenced in the writing of this article, available on Amazon.

 

Comments
  1. Posted by Sollupulo
    • Posted by Bill Ingram
  2. Posted by L. Whitefeather
  3. Posted by geoff_s
  4. Posted by geoff_s
    • Posted by Michael S
  5. Posted by yasir
  6. Posted by Misheline
  7. Posted by Alex Yan
    • Posted by Shayan
  8. Posted by Russell
  9. Posted by Sophia
  10. Posted by Jaia Sunbeam
    • Posted by Sina Martel
  11. Posted by Diana
    • Posted by Diana
  12. Posted by Colin Gullberg
    • Posted by eva skillings
  13. Posted by Elaine Powell
  14. Posted by Keith Kellett
  15. Posted by Mary Potter
  16. Posted by Randall
    • Posted by SlumberWise
      • Posted by GRACE HOLMES
  17. Posted by JohnB
    • Posted by Jean
      • Posted by Kenneth Donnelly
    • Posted by Lisl
      • Posted by Penny
  18. Posted by Scott
    • Posted by Adam
    • Posted by Rick
  19. Posted by Nigel Holmes (not the previous NH!)
  20. Posted by Sean Downing
    • Posted by Hailey
      • Posted by Norman Heironimus
        • Posted by Tessa
          • Posted by Adrienne
          • Posted by Nun of your damn business
        • Posted by Rhonda Stolle
        • Posted by Timothy
        • Posted by HappyHeathen
      • Posted by Diana
    • Posted by Fran
    • Posted by Jean
    • Posted by Fran
  21. Posted by Thomas
    • Posted by S'reya
  22. Posted by Autumn Wilbanks
  23. Posted by rachel
    • Posted by Pamela Whitaker
    • Posted by Scott
  24. Posted by LaFiore
  25. Posted by Beth
    • Posted by Jamison Kirby
    • Posted by Crystal
  26. Posted by Sue Ann
  27. Posted by John Strate
    • Posted by Casey
  28. Posted by Bob Faser
    • Posted by Amanda
  29. Posted by TN
  30. Posted by Simon
    • Posted by Bob
  31. Posted by Rose
  32. Posted by Rob
    • Posted by Tracey
  33. Posted by walter77777
  34. Posted by wmpottsjr
  35. Posted by Nigel Holmes
  36. Posted by SebastianF.
  37. Posted by Emma
    • Posted by Dracula
  38. Posted by Mari Isaac
    • Posted by J R
    • Posted by D. Rienks
      • Posted by DuBose
    • Posted by Lee
    • Posted by Ann
    • Posted by Judy Arnel
    • Posted by Diana
  39. Posted by Mark LaPolla
  40. Posted by MSC
  41. Posted by Vickie
    • Posted by Olli
      • Posted by R
      • Posted by Amanda
    • Posted by R
  42. Posted by Jennifer
  43. Posted by CC
  44. Posted by Charles
  45. Posted by Maria
  46. Posted by Farah Mendlesohn
    • Posted by Lauren
  47. Posted by Deborah
    • Posted by Boyd M
      • Posted by Diane M.
  48. Posted by Dave
  49. Posted by David
  50. Posted by Jason
  51. Posted by ReBecca
  52. Posted by pilvikki
  53. Posted by Andrew
  54. Posted by Les Bennett
  55. Posted by Brian
    • Posted by Tracey
  56. Posted by Dustin Geels
    • Posted by DannyJane
  57. Posted by Iszy
    • Posted by emilynne capelli
  58. Posted by Terry
  59. Posted by Helen
  60. Posted by Debra
  61. Posted by Alexander Bear
    • Posted by Alexander Bear
    • Posted by Janna
  62. Posted by Michael
  63. Posted by Susan Gass
    • Posted by Alan Young
    • Posted by Nancy Anderson
      • Posted by Paul
        • Posted by Leigh
  64. Posted by Solly
    • Posted by Mary
  65. Posted by Nick
    • Posted by Helen
    • Posted by Rachel
      • Posted by other Rachel
        • Posted by Erik Erik
  66. Posted by longarche
  67. Posted by arcie
    • Posted by Paula
  68. Posted by Eve
    • Posted by Julia Lerner
      • Posted by Michelle
        • Posted by Lynne
    • Posted by Sarah
    • Posted by Christine Martinez
  69. Posted by Marjorie Ingerman
    • Posted by casey hayes
    • Posted by May
  70. Posted by Arctic_Lynx_AK
  71. Posted by Coco
  72. Posted by RJ
    • Posted by Bruce75
  73. Posted by Sophie
    • Posted by Christine Andrew
      • Posted by cate
  74. Posted by Mandy
  75. Posted by Lucie
    • Posted by JoElla
      • Posted by Michelle
      • Posted by Miriam
    • Posted by Ron Ennis
  76. Posted by Jane
    • Posted by Tanya
      • Posted by George
      • Posted by Matt
  77. Posted by Brittani
  78. Posted by Summer
    • Posted by Teresa
  79. Posted by M
  80. Posted by Linda
    • Posted by rechal
      • Posted by Tmb08g
        • Posted by Tmb08g
  81. Posted by Crystal
  82. Posted by Ruan
    • Posted by Wanda Sparkes
    • Posted by JoElla
  83. Posted by Eric
    • Posted by Jane Arney
    • Posted by Costas Madias
  84. Posted by Kim
  85. Posted by Suzanna
  86. Posted by Finn
  87. Posted by Christine Spaulding
  88. Posted by Donald
  89. Posted by Harold
  90. Posted by Aimwaa
  91. Posted by kittehserf
  92. Posted by John
  93. Posted by Vicente
  94. Posted by Tammy
    • Posted by Vicente
      • Posted by Vicente
        • Posted by Sam
          • Posted by tina
  95. Posted by Haribo Lector
    • Posted by Kathryn Jalas Franke
    • Posted by Ian Johnson
      • Posted by Pamela
    • Posted by Robert Ehresman
  96. Posted by dartigen
    • Posted by dartigen
    • Posted by Tada
  97. Posted by CharlieVoid
    • Posted by Janice Sutherland
  98. Posted by maz
  99. Posted by Don Rosa
    • Posted by Tummalapalli.V.R. Murthy
      • Posted by Don Rosa
      • Posted by yiv
      • Posted by TLP
      • Posted by Hank Hill
  100. Posted by Georgia
  101. Posted by VRobin
  102. Posted by Gen
  103. Posted by Sue
    • Posted by Jane
    • Posted by Metka
    • Posted by Loz
  104. Posted by Jason
  105. Posted by Mike
    • Posted by CharlieVoid
    • Posted by Eva
  106. Posted by ghoti
    • Posted by Leonard
    • Posted by Johan
  107. Posted by Lynn
    • Posted by Samantha
  108. Posted by Rodney7777
  109. Posted by Pete C
  110. Posted by Steve
  111. Posted by Ross
  112. Posted by Leslie Chapman
  113. Posted by Lori
    • Posted by Brian Hanchett
    • Posted by trish
  114. Posted by vb
  115. Posted by Helen
  116. Posted by Karen
  117. Posted by E.T.
  118. Posted by yennie
  119. Posted by Chloe
    • Posted by Ryan
      • Posted by Susan
    • Posted by Shelby
  120. Posted by Miles
  121. Posted by kat
    • Posted by yennie
      • Posted by yennie
    • Posted by Darla
    • Posted by Sue Cohen Johnson
      • Posted by Jay
  122. Posted by J
    • Posted by Dariusz
    • Posted by yennie
    • Posted by Susan
  123. Posted by Brian
    • Posted by Susan
  124. Posted by radha
    • Posted by Xavi
  125. Posted by Alexis
  126. Posted by Jenny
  127. Posted by Susan H
  128. Posted by Matt White
    • Posted by Shelby
  129. Posted by Sammy Lee
  130. Posted by Chuck H.
    • Posted by Jo Corbijn
  131. Posted by Chris LeGate
    • Posted by Ajay
  132. Posted by Jill
  133. Posted by Anonym11
  134. Posted by i'm_a_muslim
    • Posted by i'm_a_muslim
  135. Posted by glenn
  136. Posted by Richard Landry
  137. Posted by alexander Cunningham
  138. Posted by Carla
  139. Posted by Pam
  140. Posted by Cate Dalton
  141. Posted by charlie moon
    • Posted by y
  142. Posted by d
  143. Posted by jj
  144. Posted by Awriter
  145. Posted by EA OROURKE
  146. Posted by Zhahira
    • Posted by EA OROURKE
    • Posted by Mimi Grad
      • Posted by Cherokee1940
  147. Posted by Amalie Berlin
  148. Posted by ELF ROBERT CHADIS
    • Posted by OEB25
      • Posted by Chansonette
  149. Posted by Juliana McCaig
    • Posted by Carla D
    • Posted by Cherokee1940
  150. Posted by Michelle
  151. Posted by P.I. Barrington
    • Posted by Rachel
  152. Posted by Carol
  153. Posted by Susan Burger
    • Posted by Josi
  154. Posted by Robert Capper
  155. Posted by Antoine Chahine
  156. Posted by peter
    • Posted by Jan Macfarlane
  157. Posted by Justin
  158. Posted by Greta
  159. Posted by Dan
  160. Posted by Lemaine
    • Posted by jodymurch
      • Posted by Anne
  161. Posted by Vickie
    • Posted by Alex
    • Posted by Carla D
      • Posted by S G Sterrett
  162. Posted by Radha Singh
  163. Posted by Silver Fang
  164. Posted by Gerri
  165. Posted by katina vaselopulos
    • Posted by Janice
  166. Posted by SpinningAnna
  167. Posted by Kathy
    • Posted by katina vaselopulos
    • Posted by Rita
  168. Posted by VIPelle
  169. Posted by Cici
  170. Posted by Lily
    • Posted by Tahira
      • Posted by Mariam
  171. Posted by Deborah
  172. Posted by Joan
    • Posted by Robin
  173. Posted by J
  174. Posted by Mary Hearn
  175. Posted by sonja leonard leonard
  176. Posted by Moses
    • Posted by OEB25
  177. Posted by Jim Barker
  178. Posted by Humanwatch1
    • Posted by Sara
  179. Posted by Sarah
  180. Posted by The Elk
  181. Posted by Todd Park
  182. Posted by JW
  183. Posted by katie
    • Posted by Susan
  184. Posted by Doug Harlow
    • Posted by Thomas
  185. Posted by Ana Maria Nogueira Rezende
  186. Posted by Wade
  187. Posted by Sandra Taylor
    • Posted by AnnMarie
      • Posted by Susan
  188. Posted by Sandra Taylor
  189. Posted by Harsha
    • Posted by Jeanmarie Kricher
      • Posted by Darlene Russell
  190. Posted by Norman Spicher
  191. Posted by Linda Mae Chover
  192. Posted by Jesse
  193. Posted by Sean Davis
  194. Posted by Anny
  195. Posted by Laura
  196. Posted by Connie LaMotta
  197. Posted by Jean McDermott
    • Posted by Jennifer Tanner
    • Posted by Kathy
  198. Posted by Nadia Chaudhry
  199. Posted by Matthew
  200. Posted by Justin Brierley
  201. Posted by CareerSidekick
  202. Posted by Shankar
    • Posted by Karin Aubrey
    • Posted by maggie
  203. Posted by Will
    • Posted by Joan Brown
  204. Posted by Becky
    • Posted by Karin L. White
      • Posted by BarbT
  205. Posted by Sharaaz Khan
    • Posted by Mem
      • Posted by ummsaalih
  206. Posted by Fauzia Mussarat
  207. Posted by carolina
  208. Posted by Lien Celeste
  209. Posted by Bryan
    • Posted by Lois
    • Posted by Kathy
  210. Posted by Liz Barrett
    • Posted by John
    • Posted by Joan Brown
    • Posted by Elaine
  211. Posted by Marti
    • Posted by CJ
  212. Posted by Anna
    • Posted by Leslie Fish
    • Posted by John Carter
      • Posted by Eivind
    • Posted by CJ
    • Posted by Petra
    • Posted by Alexis W.
  213. Posted by Kraig Hausmann
    • Posted by Marc
    • Posted by YetOneMore
  214. Posted by Abu Hudhayfah
    • Posted by anna
    • Posted by y
  215. Posted by Crash2Parties
    • Posted by 4THEROSES
      • Posted by Hanneke
      • Posted by delayed2sleep
        • Posted by GoodEvening
    • Posted by Dora
      • Posted by John Carter
  216. Posted by Sandra
  217. Posted by Cheryl Butler
  218. Posted by RICHARD
    • Posted by laura
  219. Posted by Amanda
    • Posted by Ashika
    • Posted by Camille
  220. Posted by Ruth Cunningham
  221. Posted by CATHERINE
  222. Posted by Steve Voiles
    • Posted by Sandhan
    • Posted by Dora
      • Posted by y
        • Posted by y
        • Posted by laura
    • Posted by MarySusan
  223. Posted by Roxy
    • Posted by John Carter
  224. Posted by Angie
  225. Posted by tarareedsandwrites
    • Posted by JD
  226. Posted by penn
  227. Posted by Jon Spayde
  228. Posted by SEO Newark
  229. Posted by Christine S
    • Posted by Patricia
  230. Posted by Bill Ward
    • Posted by DeAnna
      • Posted by Diana Lee Butler
        • Posted by Mark Gresham
      • Posted by Patricia
  231. Posted by Donna
  232. Posted by Colleen
    • Posted by Kate
      • Posted by cindy
    • Posted by John Carter
  233. Posted by Wendy
  234. Posted by Debbie Williams
  235. Posted by Jesse
  236. Posted by Brent
    • Posted by Meagan
  237. Posted by Jane
  238. Posted by Sharon
    • Posted by Bobbi
  239. Posted by Soraya Lemsatef
  240. Posted by David B.
  241. Posted by Ian
  242. Posted by David
  243. Posted by Sharon Cousins
  244. Posted by lees
  245. Posted by John Lee
  246. Posted by David Edwards
  247. Posted by Andreas
    • Posted by Lauren
    • Posted by Lauren
    • Posted by Kris Sweezy
  248. Posted by stephenf
  249. Posted by Jeannette
  250. Posted by Marnie
    • Posted by DORIS
  251. Posted by Lee Rowan
  252. Posted by Rosemary Nickerson
  253. Posted by Cassie
  254. Posted by William Whittenberg
  255. Posted by Adam Hall
  256. Posted by Hugo Lyer
  257. Posted by Elizabeth
  258. Posted by Patrick
  259. Posted by Anne Lang
  260. Posted by Marko Mikkilä
  261. Posted by Peter Reid
  262. Posted by Mish
  263. Posted by Donna Van Druten
  264. Posted by Clayton Lovell
  265. Posted by Amy
  266. Posted by Lori
    • Posted by Kim
  267. Posted by John Womack
    • Posted by Karen
  268. Posted by Beverly
  269. Posted by Tim
  270. Posted by Brian
    • Posted by Earl
  271. Posted by Ed Flis
  272. Posted by Andrea Pretli
  273. Posted by Pr mom
  274. Posted by charles
    • Posted by Amie
      • Posted by lees
  275. Posted by Lukas W
    • Posted by Brett M
  276. Posted by K Braley
    • Posted by Earl
  277. Posted by Barbara Vartanian
  278. Posted by Laurie
  279. Posted by JayJay
  280. Posted by Howard Merken
  281. Posted by Audrey Kindred
  282. Posted by Diane Holcomb
  283. Posted by Paula F
  284. Posted by Omair
    • Posted by Audi
  285. Posted by F.R. Duplantier
  286. Posted by graham smith
  287. Posted by Ego Nemo
    • Posted by laura
  288. Posted by Maria
  289. Posted by Artur
  290. Posted by Dorothy Newton
  291. Posted by Lynn G
  292. Posted by Melanie Mazur
  293. Posted by Jaimeno
  294. Posted by Lolly
  295. Posted by Deanna
  296. Posted by Ojaybee
  297. Posted by George
  298. Posted by TJ
  299. Posted by Rachel
  300. Posted by Bashar Nizam
  301. Posted by Doug Goncz
  302. Posted by JL
  303. Posted by Dianne
  304. Posted by Dr. John King
  305. Posted by maryise
  306. Posted by Chanté Boller
  307. Posted by Jennifer
  308. Posted by Shaena
  309. Posted by ken
  310. Posted by Bob Wierdsma
  311. Posted by tomb
  312. Posted by Kevin England
  313. Posted by Lesa
  314. Posted by Heidi Klardie
  315. Posted by ignatz
  316. Posted by Alison Duncan
  317. Posted by serenityrosee
  318. Posted by Kat A Tonic
  319. Posted by Heather Gleason
  320. Posted by KJQ
    • Posted by Mark
  321. Posted by Nell Rose
  322. Posted by parttimeinsomniac
  323. Posted by Joy Hughes
    • Posted by Heather Gleason
  324. Posted by Ralph Hausser
  325. Posted by JD
  326. Posted by Anon
  327. Posted by Eric
  328. Posted by Mel
  329. Posted by Farleyagain
  330. Posted by Cheryl Marinko
  331. Posted by arthole
  332. Posted by Suzanne
  333. Posted by Sarah Moeding
  334. Posted by Jane
  335. Posted by Dave Brennan
  336. Posted by Anje
  337. Posted by Jessica Dodge
  338. Posted by Jo
  339. Posted by glen
  340. Posted by Gerg
  341. Posted by jude
  342. Posted by ruth
  343. Posted by Watson Davis
  344. Posted by Debby
  345. Posted by Miriam Pia
  346. Posted by Meryl Hickman
  347. Posted by Richard
  348. Posted by Amber
  349. Posted by no
    • Posted by Roger Ekirch
  350. Posted by Alison
  351. Posted by Michael
    • Posted by Frances
  352. Posted by Josephine Fletcher
  353. Posted by Novaric
  354. Posted by Tylina
  355. Posted by Robert
  356. Posted by Linda
    • Posted by rwbuie
  357. Posted by Big E
  358. Posted by Will Small
  359. Posted by Adam
  360. Posted by Rudy
  361. Posted by Marion Davis
  362. Posted by Eric M. Van
  363. Posted by Julia
  364. Posted by Emma
  365. Posted by Robin Springer
  366. Posted by web tasarimi
  367. Posted by jake
  368. Posted by Andrew Mountford
  369. Posted by Roy
  370. Posted by db
  371. Posted by Jerry Meadows
  372. Posted by Douglas Pundick
  373. Posted by Sandy
  374. Posted by Anonymous
  375. Posted by Echi
  376. Posted by Michelle
  377. Posted by Vaughn Hathaway
  378. Posted by sandman
  379. Posted by Julie
  380. Posted by Woot10
  381. Posted by George
  382. Posted by Mabel
  383. Posted by Kris
  384. Posted by Shaia
  385. Posted by Sondra
  386. Posted by Darryl
  387. Posted by Deldeb
  388. Posted by Max
  389. Posted by l0ungeb0y
  390. Posted by Johann Espiritu
  391. Posted by John Anderson
  392. Posted by Erin Millar
  393. Posted by Wilda Wood
  394. Posted by Eric J. Krause
  395. Posted by Scott
  396. Posted by Loriann Witte
  397. Posted by Aubrey
  398. Posted by Legally Bald
  399. Posted by Kumar
  400. Posted by Loren
  401. Posted by T. Bird
  402. Posted by noel
  403. Posted by Matthew Clarke
  404. Posted by Jeanie R. Lull
  405. Posted by Robert Glen Fogarty
  406. Posted by Zed Power
  407. Posted by jon
  408. Posted by robert
  409. Posted by Jabalong
  410. Posted by peter coch
  411. Posted by Mark Charipar
  412. Posted by Rubia
  413. Posted by Dale R. Cook
  414. Posted by Robert Lunday
  415. Posted by Pennie
  416. Posted by Mokey
  417. Posted by bradford
  418. Posted by Seashell70
  419. Posted by Jo
  420. Posted by Jackie Quinn
  421. Posted by Christopher
  422. Posted by Amy
  423. Posted by Anne
  424. Posted by Matthew Groom
  425. Posted by Nate
  426. Posted by Patrick Leahey
  427. Posted by ELliat
  428. Posted by Fhyre Phoenix
  429. Posted by donjoe
  430. Posted by Paul R Puri
  431. Posted by Valerie Hess
  432. Posted by Laurie
  433. Posted by Jeff
  434. Posted by Bodie Parkhurst
    • Posted by Laurie
  435. Posted by Les
  436. Posted by eden
  437. Posted by connie
  438. Posted by annie mac
  439. Posted by Brenda
  440. Posted by Rick Pittenger
  441. Posted by Robin
  442. Posted by Geo. Perry Jett
  443. Posted by TM Producer
  444. Posted by Matthew
  445. Posted by Dana Quinney
  446. Posted by shaktinah
  447. Posted by Princess Mom
  448. Posted by Susan Owens
    • Posted by Janet
    • Posted by John McDonell
    • Posted by Mitchell joyce
  449. Posted by manoftheworld
  450. Posted by Dee
  451. Posted by Anita
  452. Posted by Spencer
  453. Posted by Toni
  454. Posted by JOnine
  455. Posted by Joe Hedges
  456. Posted by Tracey Hausel
  457. Posted by Jeffrey Parker
  458. Posted by Baluba
    • Posted by celf
      • Posted by Spiritual Singer
  459. Posted by Donnarayleen
  460. Posted by Spaceman Spiff
  461. Posted by doug r
  462. Posted by Russo Lewis
  463. Posted by Sean C.
  464. Posted by Penny Duff
  465. Posted by Lynn Serafinn
  466. Posted by Tui Snider @mentalmosaic
  467. Posted by Kjetil
  468. Posted by Kay
  469. Posted by ignoblerasputin
  470. Posted by Kim Briggs
  471. Posted by Namesinger
  472. Posted by Rebbeca Carey
  473. Posted by MarciaD
  474. Posted by Nick
  475. Posted by Thomas bodetti
  476. Posted by Carla Hawkinson
  477. Posted by Dwayne
  478. Posted by Robert Karl Skoglund
  479. Posted by Gerry
  480. Posted by Noel
  481. Posted by J.P. Grider
  482. Posted by Roger
  483. Posted by Charles
    • Posted by Osadabwa
  484. Posted by Quentin
  485. Posted by JoAnne Fortuna Casey
  486. Posted by Rudi Affolter
  487. Posted by May Hooper
  488. Posted by pål
    • Posted by The MAD Grammarian
      • Posted by C Graham
  489. Posted by Genevieve Graham (@GenGrahamAuthor)
  490. Posted by Philiopo
  491. Posted by jerry sawyer
  492. Posted by Andrew, Canterbury, UK
  493. Posted by bilbo
  494. Posted by David
    • Posted by Liz H
  495. Posted by Kapioleilani
  496. Posted by Stan Schultz
  497. Posted by Daniel Kleitsch
  498. Posted by Dana Pugsley
  499. Posted by Bill Dunigan
  500. Posted by Bigler
  501. Posted by Youni
  502. Posted by Stacey
  503. Posted by Alyn Stafford
  504. Posted by Jose Allen
    • Posted by Jenny
    • Posted by Chandler
  505. Posted by Gust Verwerft
  506. Posted by A. Nuran
  507. Posted by Susan
  508. Posted by Anne
    • Posted by Pauline Bauml
  509. Posted by Dan
  510. Posted by Angela
  511. Posted by Dana
  512. Posted by Suzi Satterfield
  513. Posted by Phillip
  514. Posted by Melissa Mullins
  515. Posted by Christine
  516. Posted by Rudd
  517. Posted by FRED MELAMED
  518. Posted by JustJohn
    • Posted by Mary
  519. Posted by Pandora,
  520. Posted by Dorothy
  521. Posted by Jami Hart
  522. Posted by Bernie
    • Posted by karon carpenter
    • Posted by Markus
  523. Posted by Greg
    • Posted by Likes Mad Grammarian and Serena
  524. Posted by david
    • Posted by William L.
  525. Posted by Jason
  526. Posted by George Hartwell
  527. Posted by Laura
    • Posted by The MAD Grammarian
      • Posted by serena
  528. Posted by Lisa
  529. Posted by Betty Cloer Wallace
  530. Posted by Gordon
    • Posted by Ben M
    • Posted by C Graham
    • Posted by David K
  531. Posted by Paul Stacey
  532. Posted by Fran
  533. Posted by ClaireC
  534. Posted by Laurel A. Rockefeller
  535. Posted by steve baker
  536. Posted by Chas
    • Posted by Muhammad
  537. Posted by Sharon J
  538. Posted by Greg
    • Posted by GABY SUNHEART
    • Posted by Colin
    • Posted by Kathy Marshall
      • Posted by Joyce Weber
  539. Posted by J
    • Posted by Juliane
    • Posted by Rebecca Anderson
  540. Posted by asd mommy
    • Posted by Jeff Carroll
  541. Posted by Michelle
  542. Posted by Neil
    • Posted by Jasmin
      • Posted by Eidolon
        • Posted by Brian
  543. Posted by Wiah
  544. Posted by Andrew
  545. Posted by Elizabeth
  546. Posted by David
  547. Posted by John Brennan
  548. Posted by hinty
  549. Posted by Laura
  550. Posted by Lena
    • Posted by Dr. John King
      • Posted by doc
  551. Posted by Toni V. Sweeney
    • Posted by tisha
    • Posted by Jeff Carroll
  552. Posted by Hank
    • Posted by Kim
  553. Posted by Freedem
  554. Posted by David Friedman
  555. Posted by Faith Campbell
    • Posted by Sex At Dawn
      • Posted by RSkidmore89
      • Posted by Browne Altman
  556. Posted by Gail Hyatt
    • Posted by Mike
    • Posted by Larry Bishop
    • Posted by Dyanne
    • Posted by christine
      • Posted by carl myers
        • Posted by Julia Bustos

Add Your Comment

Created by