Your Ancestors Didn’t Sleep Like You

Author: | Posted in Science, Trivia 761 Comments

Your ancestors didn't sleep like you

Ok, maybe your grandparents probably slept like you. And your great, great-grandparents. But once you go back before the 1800s, sleep starts to look a lot different. Your ancestors slept in a way that modern sleepers would find bizarre – they slept twice. And so can you.

The History

The existence of our sleeping twice per night was first uncovered by Roger Ekirch, professor of History at Virginia Tech.

His research found that we didn’t always sleep in one eight hour chunk. We used to sleep in two shorter periods, over a longer range of night. This range was about 12 hours long, and began with a sleep of three to four hours, wakefulness of two to three hours, then sleep again until morning.

References are scattered throughout literature, court documents, personal papers, and the ephemera of the past. What is surprising is not that people slept in two sessions, but that the concept was so incredibly common. Two-piece sleeping was the standard, accepted way to sleep.

“It’s not just the number of references – it is the way they refer to it, as if it was common knowledge,” Ekirch says.

An English doctor wrote, for example, that the ideal time for study and contemplation was between “first sleep” and “second sleep.” Chaucer tells of a character in the Canterbury Tales that goes to bed following her “firste sleep.” And, explaining the reason why working class conceived more children, a doctor from the 1500s reported that they typically had sex after their first sleep.

Ekirch’s book At Day’s Close: Night in Times Past is replete with such examples.

But just what did people do with these extra twilight hours? Pretty much what you might expect.

Most stayed in their beds and bedrooms, sometimes reading, and often they would use the time to pray. Religious manuals included special prayers to be said in the mid-sleep hours.

Others might smoke, talk with co-sleepers, or have sex. Some were more active and would leave to visit with neighbours.

As we know, this practice eventually died out. Ekirch attributes the change to the advent of street lighting and eventually electric indoor light, as well as the popularity of coffee houses. Author Craig Koslofsky offers a further theory in his book Evening’s Empire. With the rise of more street lighting, night stopped being the domain of criminals and sub-classes and became a time for work or socializing. Two sleeps were eventually considered a wasteful way to spend these hours.

No matter why the change happened, shortly after the turn of the 20th century the concept of two sleeps had vanished from common knowledge.

Until about 1990.

The Science

Two sleeps per night may have been the method of antiquity, but tendencies towards it still linger in modern man. There could be an innate biological preference for two sleeps, given the right circumstances.

In the early ‘90s, psychiatrist Thomas Wehr of National Institutes of Mental Health conducted a study on photoperiodicity (exposure to light), and its effect on sleep patterns.

In his study, fifteen men spent four weeks with their daylight artificially restricted. Rather than staying up and active the usual sixteen hours per day, they would stay up only ten. The other fourteen hours they would be in a closed, dark room, where they would rest or sleep as much as possible. This mimics the days in mid-winter, with short daylight and long nights.

At first, the participants would sleep huge stretches of time, likely making up for sleep debt that’s common among modern people. Once they had caught up on their sleep though, a strange thing started to happen.

They began to have two sleeps.

Over a twelve hour period, the participants would typically sleep for about four or five hours initially, then wake for several hours, then sleep again until morning. They slept not more than eight hours total.

The middle hours of the night, between two sleeps, was characterized by unusual calmness, likened to meditation. This was not the middle-of-the-night toss-and-turn that many of us experienced. The individuals did not stress about falling back asleep, but used the time to relax.

Russell Foster, professor of circadian neuroscience at Oxford, points out that even with standard sleep patterns, this night waking isn’t always cause for concern. “Many people wake up at night and panic,” he says. “I tell them that what they are experiencing is a throwback to the bi-modal sleep pattern.”

Outside of a scientific setting, this kind of sleep pattern is still attainable, but it does require changing our modern, electric lifestyle. Very cool person J. D. Moyer did just that. He and his family intentionally went an entire month with no electric light.

In the winter months, this meant a lot of darkness and a lot of sleep. Moyer writes “…I would go to bed really early, like 8:30, and then get up around 2:30am.  This was alarming at first, but then I remembered that this sleep pattern was quite common in pre-electric light days.  When this happened I would end up reading or writing by candlelight for an hour or two, then going back to bed.”

Moyer didn’t set out to reproduce our ancestors sleep pattern, it just happened as a byproduct of a lot of dark hours.

Should We Revive Two Sleeps?

Although history shows that two sleeping was common, and science indicates that it is (in some conditions) natural, there is no indication that it is better. Two sleeps may leave you feeling more rested, but this could simply be because you are intentionally giving yourself more time to rest, relax, and sleep. Giving the same respect to the single, eight-hour sleep should be just as effective.

Note too that two sleeping needs a lot of darkness – darkness that is only possible naturally during the winter months. The greater levels of daylight during summer and other seasons would make two sleeping difficult, or even impossible.

Perhaps two sleeping is merely a coping mechanism to get through the long, cold, boring nights of the winter. Today, we don’t need to cope. So long as we give our sleep the time and respect it needs, getting the “standard” eight hours of sleep should be fine.

But next time you wake up at 2 AM and can’t sleep, just remember your great, great, great, great, great grandfather. He did the same thing every night.

Update

Well this article proved exceedingly popular! Thank you to everyone who visited, or took the time to leave a comment. I would encourage new visitors to have a read through the comments below for some interesting ideas and perspectives. I learned two things in particular:

1. This is far more common that I thought. A lot of commenters either practice, or used to practice this kind of sleep.

2. Another possible reason for two sleeps is tending the fire during the night. Several clever readers noted that in order to keep a fire running through the night, we would need to get up and tend it.

Commenters also raised questions regarding non-European and non-Western cultures, which we’ll be digging into in future articles. For anyone who wants to learn more about this kind of sleep, I’ve linked below to two books referenced in the writing of this article, available on Amazon.

 

Comments
  1. Posted by wmpottsjr
  2. Posted by Nigel Holmes
  3. Posted by SebastianF.
  4. Posted by Emma
    • Posted by Dracula
  5. Posted by Mari Isaac
    • Posted by J R
    • Posted by D. Rienks
      • Posted by DuBose
    • Posted by Lee
  6. Posted by Mark LaPolla
  7. Posted by MSC
  8. Posted by Vickie
    • Posted by Olli
  9. Posted by Jennifer
  10. Posted by CC
  11. Posted by Charles
  12. Posted by Maria
  13. Posted by Farah Mendlesohn
    • Posted by Lauren
  14. Posted by Deborah
    • Posted by Boyd M
  15. Posted by Dave
  16. Posted by David
  17. Posted by Jason
  18. Posted by ReBecca
  19. Posted by pilvikki
  20. Posted by Andrew
  21. Posted by Les Bennett
  22. Posted by Brian
  23. Posted by Dustin Geels
    • Posted by DannyJane
  24. Posted by Iszy
    • Posted by emilynne capelli
  25. Posted by Terry
  26. Posted by Helen
  27. Posted by Debra
  28. Posted by Alexander Bear
    • Posted by Alexander Bear
    • Posted by Janna
  29. Posted by Michael
  30. Posted by Susan Gass
    • Posted by Alan Young
    • Posted by Nancy Anderson
      • Posted by Paul
        • Posted by Leigh
  31. Posted by Solly
    • Posted by Mary
  32. Posted by Nick
    • Posted by Helen
    • Posted by Rachel
      • Posted by other Rachel
        • Posted by Erik Erik
  33. Posted by longarche
  34. Posted by arcie
    • Posted by Paula
  35. Posted by Eve
    • Posted by Julia Lerner
      • Posted by Michelle
        • Posted by Lynne
    • Posted by Sarah
    • Posted by Christine Martinez
  36. Posted by Marjorie Ingerman
    • Posted by casey hayes
  37. Posted by Arctic_Lynx_AK
  38. Posted by Coco
  39. Posted by RJ
    • Posted by Bruce75
  40. Posted by Sophie
    • Posted by Christine Andrew
      • Posted by cate
  41. Posted by Mandy
  42. Posted by Lucie
    • Posted by JoElla
      • Posted by Michelle
      • Posted by Miriam
    • Posted by Ron Ennis
  43. Posted by Jane
    • Posted by Tanya
      • Posted by George
      • Posted by Matt
  44. Posted by Brittani
  45. Posted by Summer
    • Posted by Teresa
  46. Posted by M
  47. Posted by Linda
    • Posted by rechal
      • Posted by Tmb08g
        • Posted by Tmb08g
  48. Posted by Crystal
  49. Posted by Ruan
    • Posted by Wanda Sparkes
    • Posted by JoElla
  50. Posted by Eric
    • Posted by Jane Arney
    • Posted by Costas Madias
  51. Posted by Kim
  52. Posted by Suzanna
  53. Posted by Finn
  54. Posted by Christine Spaulding
  55. Posted by Donald
  56. Posted by Harold
  57. Posted by Aimwaa
  58. Posted by kittehserf
  59. Posted by John
  60. Posted by Vicente
  61. Posted by Tammy
    • Posted by Vicente
      • Posted by Vicente
        • Posted by Sam
          • Posted by tina
  62. Posted by Haribo Lector
    • Posted by Kathryn Jalas Franke
    • Posted by Ian Johnson
      • Posted by Pamela
    • Posted by Robert Ehresman
  63. Posted by dartigen
    • Posted by dartigen
    • Posted by Tada
  64. Posted by CharlieVoid
    • Posted by Janice Sutherland
  65. Posted by maz
  66. Posted by Don Rosa
    • Posted by Tummalapalli.V.R. Murthy
      • Posted by Don Rosa
      • Posted by yiv
      • Posted by TLP
      • Posted by Hank Hill
  67. Posted by Georgia
  68. Posted by VRobin
  69. Posted by Gen
  70. Posted by Sue
    • Posted by Jane
    • Posted by Metka
    • Posted by Loz
  71. Posted by Jason
  72. Posted by Mike
    • Posted by CharlieVoid
    • Posted by Eva
  73. Posted by ghoti
    • Posted by Leonard
    • Posted by Johan
  74. Posted by Lynn
    • Posted by Samantha
  75. Posted by Rodney7777
  76. Posted by Pete C
  77. Posted by Steve
  78. Posted by Ross
  79. Posted by Leslie Chapman
  80. Posted by Lori
    • Posted by Brian Hanchett
    • Posted by trish
  81. Posted by vb
  82. Posted by Helen
  83. Posted by Karen
  84. Posted by E.T.
  85. Posted by yennie
  86. Posted by Chloe
    • Posted by Ryan
      • Posted by Susan
    • Posted by Shelby
  87. Posted by Miles
  88. Posted by kat
    • Posted by yennie
      • Posted by yennie
    • Posted by Darla
    • Posted by Sue Cohen Johnson
      • Posted by Jay
  89. Posted by J
    • Posted by Dariusz
    • Posted by yennie
    • Posted by Susan
  90. Posted by Brian
    • Posted by Susan
  91. Posted by radha
    • Posted by Xavi
  92. Posted by Alexis
  93. Posted by Jenny
  94. Posted by Susan H
  95. Posted by Matt White
    • Posted by Shelby
  96. Posted by Sammy Lee
  97. Posted by Chuck H.
    • Posted by Jo Corbijn
  98. Posted by Chris LeGate
    • Posted by Ajay
  99. Posted by Jill
  100. Posted by Anonym11
  101. Posted by i'm_a_muslim
    • Posted by i'm_a_muslim
  102. Posted by glenn
  103. Posted by Richard Landry
  104. Posted by alexander Cunningham
  105. Posted by Carla
  106. Posted by Pam
  107. Posted by Cate Dalton
  108. Posted by charlie moon
    • Posted by y
  109. Posted by d
  110. Posted by jj
  111. Posted by Awriter
  112. Posted by EA OROURKE
  113. Posted by Zhahira
    • Posted by EA OROURKE
    • Posted by Mimi Grad
      • Posted by Cherokee1940
  114. Posted by Amalie Berlin
  115. Posted by ELF ROBERT CHADIS
    • Posted by OEB25
      • Posted by Chansonette
  116. Posted by Juliana McCaig
    • Posted by Carla D
    • Posted by Cherokee1940
  117. Posted by Michelle
  118. Posted by P.I. Barrington
    • Posted by Rachel
  119. Posted by Carol
  120. Posted by Susan Burger
    • Posted by Josi
  121. Posted by Robert Capper
  122. Posted by Antoine Chahine
  123. Posted by peter
    • Posted by Jan Macfarlane
  124. Posted by Justin
  125. Posted by Greta
  126. Posted by Dan
  127. Posted by Lemaine
    • Posted by jodymurch
      • Posted by Anne
  128. Posted by Vickie
    • Posted by Alex
    • Posted by Carla D
      • Posted by S G Sterrett
  129. Posted by Radha Singh
  130. Posted by Silver Fang
  131. Posted by Gerri
  132. Posted by katina vaselopulos
    • Posted by Janice
  133. Posted by SpinningAnna
  134. Posted by Kathy
    • Posted by katina vaselopulos
    • Posted by Rita
  135. Posted by VIPelle
  136. Posted by Cici
  137. Posted by Lily
    • Posted by Tahira
      • Posted by Mariam
  138. Posted by Deborah
  139. Posted by Joan
    • Posted by Robin
  140. Posted by J
  141. Posted by Mary Hearn
  142. Posted by sonja leonard leonard
  143. Posted by Moses
    • Posted by OEB25
  144. Posted by Jim Barker
  145. Posted by Humanwatch1
    • Posted by Sara
  146. Posted by Sarah
  147. Posted by The Elk
  148. Posted by Todd Park
  149. Posted by JW
  150. Posted by katie
    • Posted by Susan
  151. Posted by Doug Harlow
    • Posted by Thomas
  152. Posted by Ana Maria Nogueira Rezende
  153. Posted by Wade
  154. Posted by Sandra Taylor
    • Posted by AnnMarie
      • Posted by Susan
  155. Posted by Sandra Taylor
  156. Posted by Harsha
    • Posted by Jeanmarie Kricher
      • Posted by Darlene Russell
  157. Posted by Norman Spicher
  158. Posted by Linda Mae Chover
  159. Posted by Jesse
  160. Posted by Sean Davis
  161. Posted by Anny
  162. Posted by Laura
  163. Posted by Connie LaMotta
  164. Posted by Jean McDermott
    • Posted by Jennifer Tanner
    • Posted by Kathy
  165. Posted by Nadia Chaudhry
  166. Posted by Matthew
  167. Posted by Justin Brierley
  168. Posted by CareerSidekick
  169. Posted by Shankar
    • Posted by Karin Aubrey
    • Posted by maggie
  170. Posted by Will
    • Posted by Joan Brown
  171. Posted by Becky
    • Posted by Karin L. White
      • Posted by BarbT
  172. Posted by Sharaaz Khan
    • Posted by Mem
      • Posted by ummsaalih
  173. Posted by Fauzia Mussarat
  174. Posted by carolina
  175. Posted by Lien Celeste
  176. Posted by Bryan
    • Posted by Lois
    • Posted by Kathy
  177. Posted by Liz Barrett
    • Posted by John
    • Posted by Joan Brown
    • Posted by Elaine
  178. Posted by Marti
    • Posted by CJ
  179. Posted by Anna
    • Posted by Leslie Fish
    • Posted by John Carter
      • Posted by Eivind
    • Posted by CJ
    • Posted by Petra
    • Posted by Alexis W.
  180. Posted by Kraig Hausmann
    • Posted by Marc
    • Posted by YetOneMore
  181. Posted by Abu Hudhayfah
    • Posted by anna
    • Posted by y
  182. Posted by Crash2Parties
    • Posted by 4THEROSES
      • Posted by Hanneke
      • Posted by delayed2sleep
        • Posted by GoodEvening
    • Posted by Dora
      • Posted by John Carter
  183. Posted by Sandra
  184. Posted by Cheryl Butler
  185. Posted by RICHARD
    • Posted by laura
  186. Posted by Amanda
    • Posted by Ashika
    • Posted by Camille
  187. Posted by Ruth Cunningham
  188. Posted by CATHERINE
  189. Posted by Steve Voiles
    • Posted by Sandhan
    • Posted by Dora
      • Posted by y
        • Posted by y
        • Posted by laura
    • Posted by MarySusan
  190. Posted by Roxy
    • Posted by John Carter
  191. Posted by Angie
  192. Posted by tarareedsandwrites
    • Posted by JD
  193. Posted by penn
  194. Posted by Jon Spayde
  195. Posted by SEO Newark
  196. Posted by Christine S
    • Posted by Patricia
  197. Posted by Bill Ward
    • Posted by DeAnna
      • Posted by Diana Lee Butler
        • Posted by Mark Gresham
      • Posted by Patricia
  198. Posted by Donna
  199. Posted by Colleen
    • Posted by Kate
      • Posted by cindy
    • Posted by John Carter
  200. Posted by Wendy
  201. Posted by Debbie Williams
  202. Posted by Jesse
  203. Posted by Brent
    • Posted by Meagan
  204. Posted by Jane
  205. Posted by Sharon
    • Posted by Bobbi
  206. Posted by Soraya Lemsatef
  207. Posted by David B.
  208. Posted by Ian
  209. Posted by David
  210. Posted by Sharon Cousins
  211. Posted by lees
  212. Posted by John Lee
  213. Posted by David Edwards
  214. Posted by Andreas
    • Posted by Lauren
    • Posted by Lauren
    • Posted by Kris Sweezy
  215. Posted by stephenf
  216. Posted by Jeannette
  217. Posted by Marnie
    • Posted by DORIS
  218. Posted by Lee Rowan
  219. Posted by Rosemary Nickerson
  220. Posted by Cassie
  221. Posted by William Whittenberg
  222. Posted by Adam Hall
  223. Posted by Hugo Lyer
  224. Posted by Elizabeth
  225. Posted by Patrick
  226. Posted by Anne Lang
  227. Posted by Marko Mikkilä
  228. Posted by Peter Reid
  229. Posted by Mish
  230. Posted by Donna Van Druten
  231. Posted by Clayton Lovell
  232. Posted by Amy
  233. Posted by Lori
    • Posted by Kim
  234. Posted by John Womack
    • Posted by Karen
  235. Posted by Beverly
  236. Posted by Tim
  237. Posted by Brian
    • Posted by Earl
  238. Posted by Ed Flis
  239. Posted by Andrea Pretli
  240. Posted by Pr mom
  241. Posted by charles
    • Posted by Amie
      • Posted by lees
  242. Posted by Lukas W
    • Posted by Brett M
  243. Posted by K Braley
    • Posted by Earl
  244. Posted by Barbara Vartanian
  245. Posted by Laurie
  246. Posted by JayJay
  247. Posted by Howard Merken
  248. Posted by Audrey Kindred
  249. Posted by Diane Holcomb
  250. Posted by Paula F
  251. Posted by Omair
    • Posted by Audi
  252. Posted by F.R. Duplantier
  253. Posted by graham smith
  254. Posted by Ego Nemo
    • Posted by laura
  255. Posted by Maria
  256. Posted by Artur
  257. Posted by Dorothy Newton
  258. Posted by Lynn G
  259. Posted by Melanie Mazur
  260. Posted by Jaimeno
  261. Posted by Lolly
  262. Posted by Deanna
  263. Posted by Ojaybee
  264. Posted by George
  265. Posted by TJ
  266. Posted by Rachel
  267. Posted by Bashar Nizam
  268. Posted by Doug Goncz
  269. Posted by JL
  270. Posted by Dianne
  271. Posted by Dr. John King
  272. Posted by maryise
  273. Posted by Chanté Boller
  274. Posted by Jennifer
  275. Posted by Shaena
  276. Posted by ken
  277. Posted by Bob Wierdsma
  278. Posted by tomb
  279. Posted by Kevin England
  280. Posted by Lesa
  281. Posted by Heidi Klardie
  282. Posted by ignatz
  283. Posted by Alison Duncan
  284. Posted by serenityrosee
  285. Posted by Kat A Tonic
  286. Posted by Heather Gleason
  287. Posted by KJQ
    • Posted by Mark
  288. Posted by Nell Rose
  289. Posted by parttimeinsomniac
  290. Posted by Joy Hughes
    • Posted by Heather Gleason
  291. Posted by Ralph Hausser
  292. Posted by JD
  293. Posted by Anon
  294. Posted by Eric
  295. Posted by Mel
  296. Posted by Farleyagain
  297. Posted by Cheryl Marinko
  298. Posted by arthole
  299. Posted by Suzanne
  300. Posted by Sarah Moeding
  301. Posted by Jane
  302. Posted by Dave Brennan
  303. Posted by Anje
  304. Posted by Jessica Dodge
  305. Posted by Jo
  306. Posted by glen
  307. Posted by Gerg
  308. Posted by jude
  309. Posted by ruth
  310. Posted by Watson Davis
  311. Posted by Debby
  312. Posted by Miriam Pia
  313. Posted by Meryl Hickman
  314. Posted by Richard
  315. Posted by Amber
  316. Posted by no
    • Posted by Roger Ekirch
  317. Posted by Alison
  318. Posted by Michael
    • Posted by Frances
  319. Posted by Josephine Fletcher
  320. Posted by Novaric
  321. Posted by Tylina
  322. Posted by Robert
  323. Posted by Linda
    • Posted by rwbuie
  324. Posted by Big E
  325. Posted by Will Small
  326. Posted by Adam
  327. Posted by Rudy
  328. Posted by Marion Davis
  329. Posted by Eric M. Van
  330. Posted by Julia
  331. Posted by Emma
  332. Posted by Robin Springer
  333. Posted by web tasarimi
  334. Posted by jake
  335. Posted by Andrew Mountford
  336. Posted by Roy
  337. Posted by db
  338. Posted by Jerry Meadows
  339. Posted by Douglas Pundick
  340. Posted by Sandy
  341. Posted by Anonymous
  342. Posted by Echi
  343. Posted by Michelle
  344. Posted by Vaughn Hathaway
  345. Posted by sandman
  346. Posted by Julie
  347. Posted by Woot10
  348. Posted by George
  349. Posted by Mabel
  350. Posted by Kris
  351. Posted by Shaia
  352. Posted by Sondra
  353. Posted by Darryl
  354. Posted by Deldeb
  355. Posted by Max
  356. Posted by l0ungeb0y
  357. Posted by Johann Espiritu
  358. Posted by John Anderson
  359. Posted by Erin Millar
  360. Posted by Wilda Wood
  361. Posted by Eric J. Krause
  362. Posted by Scott
  363. Posted by Loriann Witte
  364. Posted by Aubrey
  365. Posted by Legally Bald
  366. Posted by Kumar
  367. Posted by Loren
  368. Posted by T. Bird
  369. Posted by noel
  370. Posted by Matthew Clarke
  371. Posted by Jeanie R. Lull
  372. Posted by Robert Glen Fogarty
  373. Posted by Zed Power
  374. Posted by jon
  375. Posted by robert
  376. Posted by Jabalong
  377. Posted by peter coch
  378. Posted by Mark Charipar
  379. Posted by Rubia
  380. Posted by Dale R. Cook
  381. Posted by Robert Lunday
  382. Posted by Pennie
  383. Posted by Mokey
  384. Posted by bradford
  385. Posted by Seashell70
  386. Posted by Jo
  387. Posted by Jackie Quinn
  388. Posted by Christopher
  389. Posted by Amy
  390. Posted by Anne
  391. Posted by Matthew Groom
  392. Posted by Nate
  393. Posted by Patrick Leahey
  394. Posted by ELliat
  395. Posted by Fhyre Phoenix
  396. Posted by donjoe
  397. Posted by Paul R Puri
  398. Posted by Valerie Hess
  399. Posted by Laurie
  400. Posted by Jeff
  401. Posted by Bodie Parkhurst
    • Posted by Laurie
  402. Posted by Les
  403. Posted by eden
  404. Posted by connie
  405. Posted by annie mac
  406. Posted by Brenda
  407. Posted by Rick Pittenger
  408. Posted by Robin
  409. Posted by Geo. Perry Jett
  410. Posted by TM Producer
  411. Posted by Matthew
  412. Posted by Dana Quinney
  413. Posted by shaktinah
  414. Posted by Princess Mom
  415. Posted by Susan Owens
    • Posted by Janet
    • Posted by John McDonell
    • Posted by Mitchell joyce
  416. Posted by manoftheworld
  417. Posted by Dee
  418. Posted by Anita
  419. Posted by Spencer
  420. Posted by Toni
  421. Posted by JOnine
  422. Posted by Joe Hedges
  423. Posted by Tracey Hausel
  424. Posted by Jeffrey Parker
  425. Posted by Baluba
    • Posted by celf
      • Posted by Spiritual Singer
  426. Posted by Donnarayleen
  427. Posted by Spaceman Spiff
  428. Posted by doug r
  429. Posted by Russo Lewis
  430. Posted by Sean C.
  431. Posted by Penny Duff
  432. Posted by Lynn Serafinn
  433. Posted by Tui Snider @mentalmosaic
  434. Posted by Kjetil
  435. Posted by Kay
  436. Posted by ignoblerasputin
  437. Posted by Kim Briggs
  438. Posted by Namesinger
  439. Posted by Rebbeca Carey
  440. Posted by MarciaD
  441. Posted by Nick
  442. Posted by Thomas bodetti
  443. Posted by Carla Hawkinson
  444. Posted by Dwayne
  445. Posted by Robert Karl Skoglund
  446. Posted by Gerry
  447. Posted by Noel
  448. Posted by J.P. Grider
  449. Posted by Roger
  450. Posted by Charles
    • Posted by Osadabwa
  451. Posted by Quentin
  452. Posted by JoAnne Fortuna Casey
  453. Posted by Rudi Affolter
  454. Posted by May Hooper
  455. Posted by pål
    • Posted by The MAD Grammarian
      • Posted by C Graham
  456. Posted by Genevieve Graham (@GenGrahamAuthor)
  457. Posted by Philiopo
  458. Posted by jerry sawyer
  459. Posted by Andrew, Canterbury, UK
  460. Posted by bilbo
  461. Posted by David
    • Posted by Liz H
  462. Posted by Kapioleilani
  463. Posted by Stan Schultz
  464. Posted by Daniel Kleitsch
  465. Posted by Dana Pugsley
  466. Posted by Bill Dunigan
  467. Posted by Bigler
  468. Posted by Youni
  469. Posted by Stacey
  470. Posted by Alyn Stafford
  471. Posted by Jose Allen
    • Posted by Jenny
    • Posted by Chandler
  472. Posted by Gust Verwerft
  473. Posted by A. Nuran
  474. Posted by Susan
  475. Posted by Anne
    • Posted by Pauline Bauml
  476. Posted by Dan
  477. Posted by Angela
  478. Posted by Dana
  479. Posted by Suzi Satterfield
  480. Posted by Phillip
  481. Posted by Melissa Mullins
  482. Posted by Christine
  483. Posted by Rudd
  484. Posted by FRED MELAMED
  485. Posted by JustJohn
    • Posted by Mary
  486. Posted by Pandora,
  487. Posted by Dorothy
  488. Posted by Jami Hart
  489. Posted by Bernie
    • Posted by karon carpenter
    • Posted by Markus
  490. Posted by Greg
    • Posted by Likes Mad Grammarian and Serena
  491. Posted by david
    • Posted by William L.
  492. Posted by Jason
  493. Posted by George Hartwell
  494. Posted by Laura
    • Posted by The MAD Grammarian
      • Posted by serena
  495. Posted by Lisa
  496. Posted by Betty Cloer Wallace
  497. Posted by Gordon
    • Posted by Ben M
    • Posted by C Graham
    • Posted by David K
  498. Posted by Paul Stacey
  499. Posted by Fran
  500. Posted by ClaireC
  501. Posted by Laurel A. Rockefeller
  502. Posted by steve baker
  503. Posted by Chas
    • Posted by Muhammad
  504. Posted by Sharon J
  505. Posted by Greg
    • Posted by GABY SUNHEART
    • Posted by Colin
    • Posted by Kathy Marshall
      • Posted by Joyce Weber
  506. Posted by J
    • Posted by Juliane
    • Posted by Rebecca Anderson
  507. Posted by asd mommy
    • Posted by Jeff Carroll
  508. Posted by Michelle
  509. Posted by Neil
    • Posted by Jasmin
      • Posted by Eidolon
        • Posted by Brian
  510. Posted by Wiah
  511. Posted by Andrew
  512. Posted by Elizabeth
  513. Posted by David
  514. Posted by John Brennan
  515. Posted by hinty
  516. Posted by Laura
  517. Posted by Lena
    • Posted by Dr. John King
      • Posted by doc
  518. Posted by Toni V. Sweeney
    • Posted by tisha
    • Posted by Jeff Carroll
  519. Posted by Hank
    • Posted by Kim
  520. Posted by Freedem
  521. Posted by David Friedman
  522. Posted by Faith Campbell
    • Posted by Sex At Dawn
      • Posted by RSkidmore89
      • Posted by Browne Altman
  523. Posted by Gail Hyatt
    • Posted by Mike
    • Posted by Larry Bishop
    • Posted by Dyanne
    • Posted by christine
      • Posted by carl myers
        • Posted by Julia Bustos

Add Your Comment

Created by